Birch tar is solid at 65°F, moldable at 85°F, a stiff putty at 105°F, a soft sticky putty at 135°F and boils at 352°F. Other mycorrhizal associates include Leccinum scabrum and Cantharellus cibarius. It is planted decoratively in parks and gardens and is used for forest products such as joinery timber, firewood, tanning, racecourse jumps, and brooms. Golden brown on twigs and young branches, the bark matures to silvery white with black clefts. The leaves … Historically, European birch was used to make canoes, and Laplanders used it to make cloaks and leggings. Silver birch also demands slightly more summer warmth than does downy birch, which is significant in the cooler parts of Europe. According to The Encyclopedia of Wood, "The larvae of burrowing insects create pith flecks, which show as irregular dark markings and local grain disturbance.". "Lack of Evidence for Impact of the European White Birch, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T194831A2363997.en, "HOSTS – a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants", International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, "Suomen kansallistunnukset (Finland's national emblems)", "Perinteinen saunavihta (Traditional sauna vihta)". They also used it to make baskets, baby carriers, mats, torches and moose calls.  Birch dieback disease can affect planted trees, while naturally regenerated trees seem less susceptible. "Both birches and alders, the closest cousins, are lightweight trees of the forestâs edge, adapted to poor land and extremes of either drought or damp," writes Hugh Johnson in The Encyclopedia of Trees. , Three subspecies of silver birch are accepted:, B. pendula is distinguished from the related B. pubescens, the other common European birch, in having hairless, warty shoots (hairy and without warts in downy birch), more triangular leaves with double serration on the margins (more ovoid and with single serrations in downy birch), and whiter bark often with scattered black fissures (greyer, less fissured, in downy birch). Ancient Greeks used the tar to mend broken pottery. , The outer part of the bark contains up to 20% betulin. }); The birch family includes alders, hornbeams and hazels. It contains around 1% sugars and can be used in a similar way to maple syrup, being drunk fresh, concentrated by evaporation, or fermented into a "wine". 4.5 out of 5 stars (98) 98 reviews $ 9.99 FREE shipping Favorite Add to THREE- White Birch Poles Medium blueskiesforever. Smooth in … The immature male catkins are present during the winter, but the female catkins develop in the spring, soon after the leaves unfurl. It is also used for high-end joinery, flooring, general turnery and cabinetry. , The leaves have short, slender stalks and are 3 to 7 cm (1.2 to 2.8 in) long, triangular with broad, untoothed, wedge-shaped bases, slender pointed tips, and coarsely double-toothed, serrated margins. The outer bark can be peeled off in the late spring or early summer and used to create a variety of crafts. "It was popular for kitchens in the 50s and it remains popular today. (View Measured Leaf) The are almost triangular in shape, but not as much as the Gray Birch. In terms of genetic structure, the trees are quite different, but do, however, occasionally hybridise. Downy birch has a grayish-white bark with the presence of horizontal lenticular features on it. Birch Essential Oil Uses Birch Essential Oil varies in usage depending on the tree of extraction. Many North American texts treat the two species as conspecific (and cause confusion by combining the downy birch's alternative vernacular name 'white birch', with the scientific name B. pendula of the other species), but they are regarded as distinct species throughout Europe. She is a contributing editor for the Woodworking Network and has been writing the Wood of the Month column since its inception in 1986. Plain birchâs appeal is that it is a creamy white with a subtle figure and very easy to stain," Clift says. As they are shallow-rooted, they may require water during dry periods. This tree has an attractive pendulous habit. This small tree can eventually become 30 or 40 feet tall, but it throws light shade, and never becomes overpowering in a smaller space. Golden brown on twigs and young branches, the bark matures to silvery white with black clefts. Betula pendula, commonly called silver birch or European white birch, is a graceful medium-sized tree with slender pendulous branches and attractive bark. The wood is lighter than the North American species. Share your thoughts with us in the comments below. The European white birch is widespread in Europe and beyond. The trunk is typically about 1 to 2 feet wide. Including as many as 3 common names, the scientific name, our staff artist’s sketch of a typical leaf, a brief description of the tree as well as common uses of the wood. The male and female flowers of birches, called catkins, exist on the same tree. "In collections, they lose no time in hybridizing â which only makes matters worse. "Identification and isolation of pharmacologically active triterpenes in Betuale cortex, European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Betula_pendula&oldid=990636506, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Many species of birds and animals are found in birch woodland, the tree supports a wide range of insects and the light shade it casts allows shrubby and other plants to grow beneath its canopy. The seeds are very numerous and are separated by scales, and when ripe, the whole catkin disintegrates and the seeds are spread widely by the wind. 'dimension2': 'Wood Explorer', It is moderately stable and works well with hand and machine tools, but can be wooly. It is also native to northern Morocco and has become naturalised in some other parts of the world. The small, 1- to 2-mm winged seeds ripen in late summer on pendulous, cylindrical catkins 2 to 4 cm (0.8 to 1.6 in) long and 7 mm (0.3 in) broad. Edibility. PROPERTIES The leaf base of silver birch is usually a right angle to the stalk, while for downy birches, it is rounded. European White Birch. The highly-figured material is cut for expensive veneer and used in high-end applications. The twigs are slender and often pendulous and the leaves are roughly triangular with doubly serrate margins and turn yellow in autumn before they fall. European White Birch Tree Tags (ITEM# TT-15) 4" x 6" medium .070 gauge tan poly with green print.  In Germany, almost 500 species of insects have been found on silver and downy birch including 106 beetles and 105 lepidopterans, with 133 insect species feeding almost exclusively on birch. The shoots are grey-brown with fine downy. carelica, fontqueri, laciniata, lapponica, meridionalis, microlepis, and parvibracteata, as well as forms Betula pendula f. bircalensis, crispa, and palmeri. Do not use in patients with oedema or with poor kidney or heart functions  Habitats: Open woodland and heaths[17, 100]. "European birch also yields some very flashy and dramatic figures, and is also popular for architectural woodwork and high-end uses.". In the spring, large quantities of sap rise up the trunk and this can be tapped. [CDATA[//> Facts on the European White Birch Location. Trees average 60- to 70-ft tall with diameters of 2- to 3-ft. Average weight is 41 lbs per cubic foot with a specific gravity of 0.66. Aphids, leaf miner and birch skeletonizer may also occur. 'dimension9': '173628' Wood glues well and is easy to finish. 'dimension6': 'track',  Leafy, fragrant boughs of silver birch (called vihta or vasta) are used to gently beat oneself in the Finnish sauna culture. Its light seeds are easily blown by the wind and it is a pioneer species, one of the first trees to sprout on bare land or after a forest fire. European birch trees do thrive where other trees will not, and do well as far north as Lapland. Small shrubs that grow on the forest floor include blaeberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and cowberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea).  It is naturalised and locally invasive in parts of Canada. Shiny, … Experts recommend pre-boring for nailing or screwing, especially on material with irregular grain. Historically, European birch was used to make canoes, and Laplanders used it to make cloaks and leggings.  The removal of bark was at one time so widespread that Carl Linnaeus expressed his concern for the survival of the woodlands. pendula. Leaves are glossy green turning yellow in autumn. They grow best in full sun planted in deep, well-drained soil.. Norwegians covered bark with soil to create roofs. Birch has a multitude of historical uses but is less familiar for its undoubted medicinal properties. 'dimension1': 'European Birch', Borers: Wood-boring insect larvae are a big concern for any tree, but particularly for Birch trees. Birch are trees that are native to Europe and parts of Asia. Sign Up for Woodworking Network Newsletters, Get the latest headlines delivered to you daily Subscribe. Hardy Species  This page was last edited on 25 November 2020, at 17:09. The species is monoecious with male and female catkins found on the same tree. Jo-Ann Kaiser has been covering the woodworking industry for 31+ years. It has been widely planted in Canada and the northern U.S. as an ornamental. . European birch yields plain and fancy looks, and both have fans in the world of woodworking. Young branches have whitish resin warts and the twigs are slender, hairless, and often pendulous. The graceful, arching, open-branched pyramidal form when young matures to a stately oval to rounded form in time. Add to Wishlist; Share This. Flowering plants often found in birch woods include primrose (Primula vulgaris), violet (Viola riviniana), bluebell (Hyacinthoides non-scripta), wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa), and wood sorrel (Oxalis acetosella). 30-40 ft. high, with weeping side branches and delicate, lacy foliage. "We carry the plain white birch, which is a general volume wood, and we also carry the highly figured ice birch veneer, which is a very flashy figure used for high-end applications," Clift says. The wood is now used for building lumber to make veneer, pulpwood and plywood. European White Birch. Betula pubescens is commonly known as downy birch, with other common names including moor birch, white birch, European white birch or hairy birch. Betula species most often marketed as lumber include Betula pendula, Betula alba, Betula pubescens and Betular odorata. European White Birch Betula pendula. This applies particularly to acidic or nutrient-poor soils. "Silver Birch" redirects here. Norwegians covered bark with soil to … Russians used birch bark to tan leather and it is sometimes used to burn fuel. Regular systemic borer control is recommended. , Birch brushwood is used for racecourse jumps and besom brooms. Alex X. Niemiera, Professor, School of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech. 'Youngii' has dense, twiggy, weeping growth with no central leader and requires being grafted onto a standard stem of normal silver birch.  The two have differences in habitat requirements, with silver birch found mainly on dry, sandy soils, and downy birch more common on wet, poorly drained sites such as clay soils and peat bogs. , Successful birch cultivation requires a climate cool enough for at least the occasional winter snowfall.  In the United States, the wood is attacked by the bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius), an insect pest to which it has no natural resistance. The leavesare ovate-acute, 2 to 5 cm (0.8 to 2.0 in) long and 1.5 to 4.5 cm (0.6 to 1.8 in) br… It has been introduced into North America, where it is known as the European white birch, and is considered invasive in some states in the United States and parts of Canada. While plain, white birch is known for its creamy, white-to-tan color and faint grain, masur birch is the name for wood that has been affected by insects.  The synonym Betula oycowiensis (as B. oycoviensis) was previously listed on the Red List as vulnerable, though it is now considered a synonym of B. pendula subsp. The leaves of a white birch are ovate, around 2 to 4 inches long and 1 or 2 inches in width. The veneer from the infected logs is sliced and marketed. Birch plywood is used to make skateboards because they give a strong, yet flexible ride. The… Read More European white birch was once used extensively in landscapes, but its high susceptibility to the bronze birch borer has limited its … Sunset Zones 1-11, 14-24. There is a moderate blunting effect on cutting surfaces. Silver Birch, European white birch, Common Birch, Warty Birch, European White Birch: Family: Betulaceae: USDA hardiness: 2-6: Known Hazards: The aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in birch tar are irritating to the skin. The European white birch (B. pendula, sometimes erroneously called B. alba), also known as silver birch or common birch, has slender, drooping branches and small, sharp-pointed leaves about 6 cm (2 inches) long.It may grow to a height of 15 m on light soils. From shop SEEDMALL. Because the birch sprouts early, it is … 'dimension4': 'European Birch', ]]> In midsummer, the female catkins mature and the male catkins expand and release pollen, and wind pollination takes place. Old trees are often killed by the decay fungus Piptoporus betulinus and fallen branches rot rapidly on the forest floor. There is no other firewood sold anywhere with the beauty, ease of The buds are small and sticky, and development is sympodial - the terminal bud dies away and growth continues from a lateral bud. Product Description. 2901-1043NP. [CDATA[//><! In Scandinavia and other regions of northern Europe, it is grown for forest products such as lumber and pulp, as well as for aesthetic purposes and ecosystem services. The bark on the trunk and branches is golden-brown at first, but later this turns to white as a result of papery tissue developing on the surface and peeling off in flakes, in a similar manner to the closely related paper birch (B. papyrifera).  Some shoots are long and bear the male catkins at the tip, while others are short and bear female catkins. It is, however, extensively used in chewing gum, root beer, toothpaste, and others in small amounts. Sapwood is permeable and liable to attack by the common furniture beetle. Print This Page. White birch is a medium-sized tree, with most in the wild growing to heights between 50 and 70 feet. The European White Birch is a fast-growing tree for cold parts of the country, that is a great choice for a new, empty garden. Clift says plain European birch is typically used in kitchen cabinetry, panels and residential doors. , Several varieties of B. pendula are no longer accepted, including B. pendula var.  In the southern parts of its range, it is mainly found in mountainous regions. window.dataLayer = window.dataLayer || ; gtag('js', new Date()); Please follow the link at the right. Smooth, white, flaky; peels into papery strips; Distribution & Uses. Bark can be heated and the resin collected; the resin is an excellent waterproof glue and useful for starting fires. This dries as they are hard to distinguish require water during dry periods, snowshoes and sleds other sold! 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Recommend using reduced cutting angles to avoid tearing when the material is cut for expensive veneer and used to skateboards!
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